Base64
Definition
PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2) is a key derivation function that is part of RSA Laboratories' Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) series. PBKDF2 applies a pseudorandom function, such as a cryptographic hash, cipher, or HMAC to the input password or passphrase along with a salt value and repeats the process many times to produce a derived key, which can then be used as a cryptographic key in subsequent operations. The added computational work makes password cracking much more difficult, and is known as key stretching. When the standard was written in 2000, the recommended minimum number of iterations was 1000, but the parameter is intended to be increased over time as CPU speeds increase. Having a salt added to the password reduces the ability to use precomputed hashes (rainbow tables) for attacks, and means that multiple passwords have to be tested individually, not all at once. The standard recommends a salt length of at least 64 bits.
See Also
Implementation
Example
pbkdf2(password, your_salt, 1024, 128) → $PBKDF2$HMACSHA1:1024:OSf/cleraNwLRg03y/eNQw==
Definition
Time formatting from Epoch to any other time format. Formatting rules are as per Joda Time DateTimeFormat implementation which is mostly compatible with Java SimpleDateFormat. We will automatically detect if the epoch time you supply is in seconds or milliseconds
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Implementation
Example
time_format(1368027800) → Wed, 8 May 2013 15:43:20 +0000
Definition
JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation, is a text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange. It is derived from the JavaScript scripting language for representing simple data structures and associative arrays, called objects. Despite its relationship to JavaScript, it is language-independent, with parsers available for many languages. The JSON format was originally specified by Douglas Crockford, and is described in RFC 4627. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON filename extension is .json. The JSON format is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, serving as an alternative to XML.
See Also
XML
Implementation
Example
json_format(<unformatted>) → <formatted>
Definition
In cryptography, scrypt is a password-based key derivation function created by Colin Percival, originally for the Tarsnap online backup service. The algorithm was specifically designed to make it costly to perform large scale custom hardware attacks by requiring large amounts of memory. On 17 September, 2012, the scrypt algorithm was published by IETF as an Internet Draft, on track to becoming an informational RFC. It is used as a proof-of-work scheme by the Litecoin digital currency.
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Implementation
Example
scrypt(password, 12, 8) → $s0$c0801$3nFFL4C3OQZiU7KCrC2VMg==$KUAkvBAN ... I1xLzI=
Definition
Base64 encoding schemes are commonly used when there is a need to encode binary data that needs to be stored and transferred over media that are designed to deal with textual data. This is to ensure that the data remain intact without modification during transport. Base64 is commonly used in a number of applications including email via MIME, and storing complex data in XML.
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Implementation
Example
base64_enc(Lorem ipsum) → TG9yZW0gaXBzdW0=
Definition
SHA-2 is a set of cryptographic hash functions (SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512) designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published in 2001 by the NIST as a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard. A hash function is an algorithm that transforms (hashes) an arbitrary set of data elements into a single fixed length value (the hash). The computed hash value may then be used to verify the integrity of copies of the original data without providing any means to derive the source (irreversibly). A hash value therefore may be freely distributed or stored as it is only used for comparative purposes. SHA stands for Secure Hash Algorithm. SHA-2 includes a significant number of changes from its predecessor, SHA-1. SHA-2 consists of a set of four hash functions with digests that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits.
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Implementation
Example
sha256(Lorem ipsum) → qaZpePN4RWyBj7ij58atPSyD5ickzL3qezYlP7jfXt0=
Definition
In cryptography, a keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) is a specific construction for calculating a message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret cryptographic key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authentication of a message. Any cryptographic hash function, such as MD5 or SHA-1, may be used in the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is termed HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA1 accordingly. The cryptographic strength of the HMAC depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying hash function, the size of its hash output, and on the size and quality of the key.
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Implementation
Example
hmac_sha256(key, Lorem ipsum) → 931662d0920c5993cb23460822ec12e61b0e611be49e3fc215033fb819f651fb
Definition
Bcrypt is a key derivation function for passwords designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, based on the Blowfish cipher, and presented at USENIX in 1999.[1] Besides incorporating a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks, bcrypt is an adaptive function: over time, the iteration count can be increased to make it slower, so it remains resistant to brute-force search attacks even with increasing computation power. Blowfish is notable among block ciphers for its expensive key setup phase. It starts off with subkeys in a standard state, then uses this state to perform a block encryption using part of the key, and uses the result of that encryption (really, a hashing) to replace some of the subkeys. Then it uses this modified state to encrypt another part of the key, and uses the result to replace more of the subkeys. It proceeds in this fashion, using a progressively modified state to hash the key and replace bits of state, until all subkeys have been set.
See Also
Implementation
Example
bcrypt(password, 8) → $2a$08$j/UEhKOBlstWqIvC2I/ld.IeZYLT1Q4JdOQwvPscz578AB86aA0Q6
Definition
In cryptography, SHA-1 is a cryptographic hash function designed by the United States National Security Agency and published by the United States NIST as a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard. SHA stands for "secure hash algorithm". SHA-1 is very similar to SHA-0, but corrects an error in the original SHA hash specification that led to significant weaknesses. SHA-1 is the most widely used of the existing SHA hash functions, and is employed in several widely used applications and protocols.
See Also
Implementation
Example
sha1(Lorem ipsum) → lJEr6LP7R9QWHqUOWUjGKWr2ygU=
Definition
The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm is a widely used cryptographic hash function that produces a 128-bit (16-byte) hash value. Specified in RFC 1321, MD5 has been utilized in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check data integrity. MD5 was designed by Ron Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function, MD4. An MD5 hash is typically expressed as a hexadecimal number, 32 digits long.
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Implementation
Example
md5(Lorem ipsum) → CVbS+9XVwphEpNIe0vduDA==
Definition
Security Assertion Markup Language 2.0 (SAML 2.0) is a version of the SAML standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between security domains. SAML 2.0 is an XML-based protocol that uses security tokens containing assertions to pass information about a principal (usually an end user) between a SAML authority, that is an identity provider, and a SAML consumer, that is a service provider. SAML 2.0 enables web-based authentication and authorization scenarios including cross-domain single sign-on (SSO).
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Implementation
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Example
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Definition
Hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F to represent values ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AF3 is equal, in decimal, to (2 × 163) + (10 × 162) + (15 × 161) + (3 × 160), or 10995. Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is a human-friendly representation of binary-coded values in computing and digital electronics. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte (8 bits). For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal), but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 to FF.
See Also
Implementation
Example
hex_enc(Lorem ipsum) → 4c6f72656d20697073756d
Definition
As of version 4.0, HTML defines a set of 252 character entity references and a set of 1,114,050 numeric character references, both of which allow individual characters to be written via simple markup, rather than literally. A literal character and its markup counterpart are considered equivalent and are rendered identically. The ability to "escape" characters in this way allows for the characters < and & (when written as &lt; and &amp;, respectively) to be interpreted as character data, rather than markup.
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Implementation
Example
html4_enc(♥) → &hearts;
Definition
Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances. Although it is known as URL encoding it is, in fact, used more generally within the main Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) set, which includes both Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Name (URN). As such, it is also used in the preparation of data of the application/x-www-form-urlencoded media type, as is often used in the submission of HTML form data in HTTP requests.
See Also
Implementation
Example
url_enc(Lorem?) → Lorem%3F
Definition
Ascii85, also called Base85, is a form of binary-to-text encoding developed by Paul E. Rutter for the btoa utility. By using five ASCII characters to represent four bytes of binary data (making the encoded size ¹⁄₄ larger than the original, assuming eight bits per ASCII character), it is more efficient than uuencode or Base64, which use four characters to represent three bytes of data (¹⁄₃ increase, assuming eight bits per ASCII character). Its main modern use is in Adobe's PostScript and Portable Document Format file formats.
See Also
Implementation
Example
ascii85_enc(Lorem ipsum) → 9Q+r_D'3P3F*2=~
Definition
Base32 is a notation for encoding arbitrary byte data using a restricted set of symbols which can be conveniently used by humans and processed by old computer systems which only recognize restricted character sets. It comprises a symbol set made up of 32 different characters, as well as an algorithm for encoding arbitrary strings using 8-bit characters into the Base32 alphabet. This uses more than one 5-bit Base32 symbol for each 8-bit input character, and thus also specifies requirements on the allowed lengths of Base32 strings (which must be multiples of 40 bits). The Base64 system, in contrast, is closely related but uses a larger set of 64 symbols.
See Also
Implementation
Example
base32_enc(Lorem ipsum) → JRXXEZLNEBUXA43VNU======
Definition
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards. The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services.
See Also
Implementation
Example
xml_format(<unformatted>) → <formatted>
Options
Encode with
Encode with
Salt
Iteration
Length
Hashing function
Key
CPU Cost
Memory Cost
Encode using
Pattern
Digest size
Encode with
Work Factor
HTML version
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